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Showing posts from July, 2016

Olivine weathering to capture CO2 and counter climate change

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Professor Schuiling in front of a huge and very impressive olivine massif in Oman Olivine weathering to capture CO₂ and counter climate change - by R.D. Schuiling Abstract CO ₂  is emitted in large quantities as a consequence of our burning of fossil fuels. It has several unpleasant consequences, because it will probably cause climate change, and there are several reports that high levels of CO ₂  in offices and schools may impair the quality of thinking of the people that work there. Although higher levels of it in the atmosphere may also have some beneficial effects on vegetation, it should be considered as a possibly dangerous pollutant. Introduction Many new technologies are proposed to remove CO ₂  from the atmosphere, but strangely enough the only process that has always removed the excess of CO ₂  emitted by volcanoes since the origin of the Earth is barely considered. It is the weathering of minerals by which almost all the CO ₂ t hat was emitted during the past by volcanoes wa

It could be unbearably hot in many places within a few years time

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On July 24, 2016, 21:00 UTC, it was 98.7°F or 37.1°C at the green circle on above image. Because humidity at the time was 72% and wind speed was 2 mph or 3 km/h, it felt like it was 140.4°F or 60.2°C. Above image shows temperatures, i.e. 98.7°F or 37.1°C at the green circle. Above image shows that relative humidity was 72% at the green circle. This event occurred at a location on the border of Missouri and Arkansas, just within Missouri, as is also indicated by the red marker above Google Maps image. As the EPA animation on the right illustrates, a relatively small rise in average temperature can result in a lot more hot and extremely hot weather. The three images underneath, from the  IPCC , show the effect on extreme temperatures when (a) the mean temperature increases, (b) the variance increases, and (c) when both the mean and variance increase for a normal distribution of temperature. The 'Misery Index' is the perceived air temperature as a combination of wind chill and he

High Methane Levels Follow Earthquake in Arctic Ocean

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In the 12 months up to July 14, 2016, 48 earthquakes with a magnitude of 4 or higher on the Richter scale hit the map area of the image below, mostly at a depth of 10 km (6.214 miles). As temperatures keep rising and as melting of glaciers keeps taking away weight from the surface of Greenland, isostatic rebound can increasingly trigger earthquakes around Greenland, and in particular on the faultline that crosses the Arctic Ocean. Two earthquakes recently hit the Arctic Ocean. One earthquake hit with a magnitude of 4.5 on the Richter scale on July 9, 2016. The other earthquake hit with a magnitude of 4.7 on the Richter scale on July 12, 2016, at 00:15:24 UTC, with the epicenter at 81.626°N 2.315°W and at a depth of 10.0 km (6.214 miles), as illustrated by the image below. Following that most recent earthquake, high levels of methane showed up in the atmosphere on July 15, 2016, over that very area where the earthquake hit, as illustrated by the image below. Above image shows that met

A Global Temperature Rise Of More than Ten Degrees Celsius By 2026?

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How much have temperatures risen and how much additional warming could eventuate over the next decade? The image on the right shows a potential global temperature rise by 2026 from pre-industrial levels. This rise contains a number of elements, as discussed below from the top down. February 2016 rise from 1900 (1.62°C) The magenta element at the top reflects the temperature rise since 1900. In February 2016, it was 1.62°C warmer compared to the year 1900, so that's a rise that has already manifested itself. Rise from pre-industrial levels to 1900 ( 0.3°C) Additional warming was caused by humans before 1900 . Accordingly, the next (light blue) element from the top down uses 0.3°C warming to reflect anthropogenic warming from pre-industrial levels to the year 1900. When also taking this warming into account, then it was 1.92°C (3.46°F) warmer in February 2016 than in pre-industrial times, as is also illustrated on the image below. Warming from the other elements (described below) co

Extreme Weather Events

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Sea ice close to the North Pole looks slushy and fractured into small pieces. The image below shows the situation on July 8, 2016. Sea ice north of the geographic North Pole. For more on the (geo)magnetic North Pole, see this page .  For reference, the bars at the bottom right show distances of 20 km and 20 miles. By comparison, sea ice in the same area did develop large cracks in 2012, but even in September 13, 2012, it was not broken up into small pieces, as shown by this image at a recent post . As shown by above image, by Jim Pettit , Arctic sea ice volume has been in decline for decades. While this may look like a steady decline, chances are that the sea ice will abruptly collapse over the next two months, for the reasons described below. The animation below, from the Naval Research Laboratory , shows Arctic sea ice thickness for 30 days up through July 8, 2016, including a forecast of 7 days. Below is a new Naval Research Laboratory image, dated July 4, 2016 and contributed by